Category: utilities | Component type: concept |
Note that every member of a Character Traits class is static. There is never any need to create a Character Traits object, and, in fact, there is no guarantee that creating such objects is possible.
Value type | X::char_type | The character type described by this Character Traits type. |
Int type | X::int_type | A type that is capable of representing every valid value of type char_type, and, additionally an end-of-file value. For char, for example, the int type may be int, and for wchar_t it may be wint_t. |
Position type | X::pos_type | A type that can represent the position of a character of type char_type within a file. This type is usually streampos. |
Offset type | X::off_type | An integer type that can represent the difference between two pos_type values. This type is usually streamoff. |
State type | X::state_type | A type that can represent a state in a multibyte encoding scheme. This type, if used at all, is usually mbstate_t. |
X | A type that is a model of Character Traits. |
c, c1, c2 | A value of X's value type, X::char_type. |
e, e1, e2 | A value of X's int type, X::int_type. |
n | A value of type size_t. |
p, p1, p2 | A non-null pointer of type const X::char_type*. |
s | A non-null pointer of type X::char_type*. |
Name | Expression | Type requirements | Return type |
---|---|---|---|
Character assignment | X::assign(c1, c2) | c1 is a modifiable lvalue. | void |
Character equality | X::eq(c1, c2) | bool | |
Character comparison | X::lt(c1, c2) | bool | |
Range comparison | X::compare(p1, p2, n) | int | |
Length | X::length(p) | size_t | |
Find | X::find(p, n, c) | const X::char_type* | |
Move | X::move(s, p, n) | X::char_type* | |
Copy | X::copy(s, p, n) | X::char_type* | |
Range assignment | X::assign(s, n, c) | X::char_type* | |
EOF value | X::eof() | X::int_type | |
Not EOF | X::not_eof(e) | X::int_type | |
Convert to value type | X::to_char_type(e) | X::char_type | |
Convert to int type | X::to_int_type(c) | X::int_type | |
Equal int type values | X::eq_int_type(e1, e2) | bool |
Name | Expression | Precondition | Semantics | Postcondition |
---|---|---|---|---|
Character assignment | X::assign(c1, c2) | Performs the assignment c1 = c2 | X::eq(c1, c2) is true. | |
Character equality | X::eq(c1, c2) | Returns true if and only if c1 and c2 are equal. | ||
Character comparison | X::lt(c1, c2) | Returns true if and only if c1 is less than c2. Note that for any two value values c1 and c2, exactly one of X::lt(c1, c2), X::lt(c2, c1), and X::eq(c1, c2) should be true. | ||
Range comparison | X::compare(p1, p2, n) | [p1, p1+n) and [p2, p2+n) are valid ranges. | Generalization of strncmp. Returns 0 if every element in [p1, p1+n) is equal to the corresponding element in [p2, p2+n), a negative value if there exists an element in [p1, p1+n) less than the corresponding element in [p2, p2+n) and all previous elements are equal, and a positive value if there exists an element in [p1, p1+n) greater than the corresponding element in [p2, p2+n) and all previous elements are equal. | |
Length | X::length(p) | Generalization of strlen. Returns the smallest non-negative number n such that X::eq(p+n, X::char_type()) is true. Behavior is undefined if no such n exists. | ||
Find | X::find(p, n, c) | [p, p+n) is a valid range. | Generalization of strchr. Returns the first pointer q in [p, p+n) such that X::eq(*q, c) is true. Returns a null pointer if no such pointer exists. (Note that this method for indicating a failed search differs from that is find.) | |
Move | X::move(s, p, n) | [p, p+n) and [s, s+n) are valid ranges (possibly overlapping). | Generalization of memmove. Copies values from the range [p, p+n) to the range [s, s+n), and returns s. | |
Copy | X::copy(s, p, n) | [p, p+n) and [s, s+n) are valid ranges which do not overlap. | Generalization of memcpy. Copies values from the range [p, p+n) to the range [s, s+n), and returns s. | |
Range assignment | X::assign(s, n, c) | [s, s+n) is a valid range. | Generalization of memset. Assigns the value c to each pointer in the range [s, s+n), and returns s. | |
EOF value | X::eof() | Returns a value that can represent EOF. | X::eof() is distinct from every valid value of type X::char_type. That is, there exists no value c such that X::eq_int_type(X::to_int_type(c), X::eof()) is true. | |
Not EOF | X::not_eof(e) | Returns e if e represents a valid char_type value, and some non-EOF value if e is X::eof(). | ||
Convert to value type | X::to_char_type(e) | Converts e to X's char type. If e is a representation of some char_type value then it returns that value; if e is X::eof() then the return value is unspecified. | ||
Convert to int type | X::to_int_type(c) | Converts c to X's int type. | X::to_char_type(X::to_int_type(c)) is a null operation. | |
Equal int type values | X::eq_int_type(e1, e2) | Compares two int type values. If there exist values of type X::char_type such that e1 is X::to_int_type(c1)) and e2 is X::to_int_type(c2)), then X::eq_int_type(e1, e2) is the same as X::eq(c1, c2). Otherwise, eq_int_type returns true if e1 and e2 are both EOF and false if one of e1 and e2 is EOF and the other is not. |
All other operations are constant time.
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